In the very early days of the Christian era, long before England had assumed any importance, long even before her people had united into a nation, our ancestors had attained a great empire, which lasted until the eleventh century, when it fell before the attacks of the Moors of the North. At its height that empire stretched from Timbuktu to Bamako, and even as far as to the Atlantic. It is said that lawyers and scholars were much respected in that empire and that the inhabitants of Ghana wore garments of wool, cotton, silk and velvet. There was trade in copper, gold and textile fabrics, and jewels and weapons of gold and silver were carried.From Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1957)
The Haitian Revolution - A short Reading List (of Anglophone scholars)
"More than two hundred years after Haitian independence was declared on January 1, 1804, it remains a challenge to perceive the spirit that fueled the first abolition of slavery in the New World and gave rise to the second independent nation in the Americas. As recently as ten years ago, the Haitian Revolution (1789-1804), which created “Haiti” out of the ashes of French Saint Domingue, was the least understood of the three great democratic revolutions that transformed the Atlantic world in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. That is no longer true. In the decade since the 2004 bicentennial, a genuine explosion of scholarship on the Saint-Domingue revolution has profoundly enriched our memory of what Hannah Arendt, in her comparative study of the American and French revolutions, called “the revolutionary tradition and its lost treasure”. It is not clear to what extent this development has affected broader public understandings of the Haitian predicament, however."
By Professor Malick W. Ghachem for the John Carter Brown Library online exposition: “The Other Revolution: Haiti 1789-1804.”
- The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution by CLR James *
- The Making Haiti: Saint Domingue Revolution From Below by Carolyn E. Fick
- Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution by Laurent Dubois
- A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution by Jeremy D. Popkin
- Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents by Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus
- Universal Emancipation: The Haitian Revolution and the Radical Enlightenment by Nick Nesbitt
- Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History by Susan Buck-Morss
- The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution by Malick W. Ghachem
- You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery by Jeremy D. Popkin
- The World of the Haitian Revolution by David Patrick Geggus and Norman Fiering
CultureSOUL: *Blues & Jazz men* - The Great Migration era (1930s-1940s)
- Willie Smith and Fats Waller, 1937. Photo by Charles Peterson
- Little Bill Gaither, Big Bill Broonzy and Memphis Slim, Chicago, 1940.
- Thelonious Monk, Howard McGhee, Roy Eldridge, and Teddy Hill in front of Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem, N.Y, 1947.
Queen Anna Nzinga Ana de Sousa Nzinga Mbande, was a 17th-century queen of the Ndongo and Matamba Kingdoms of the Mbundu people in Angola
Queen Nzinga was born to Ngola (King) Kiluanji and Kangela in 1583. According to tradition, she was named Nzinga because her umbilical cord was wrapped around her neck (the Kimbundu verb kujinga means to twist or turn). It was said to be an indication that the person who had this characteristic would be proud and haughty (and a wise women said to her mother that Nzinga will become queen one day.) According to her recollections later in life, she was greatly favoured by her father, who allowed her to witness as he governed his kingdom, and who carried her with him to war.
In 1626 Nzinga became Queen of the Mbundu when her brother committed suicide in the face of rising Portuguese demands for slave trade concessions. Nzinga, however, refused to allow them to control her nation. In 1627, after forming alliances with former rival states, she led her army against the Portuguese, initiating a thirty year war against them. She exploited European rivalry by forging an alliance with the Dutch who had conquered Luanda in 1641. With their help, Nzinga defeated a Portuguese army in 1647. When the Dutch were in turn defeated by the Portuguese the following year and withdrew from Central Africa, Nzinga continued her struggle against the Portuguese. Now in her 60s she still personally led troops in battle. She also orchestrated guerilla attacks on the Portuguese which would continue long after her death and inspire the ultimately successful 20th Century armed resistance against the Portuguese that resulted in independent Angola in 1975.Despite repeated attempts by the Portuguese and their allies to capture or kill Queen Nzinga, she died peacefully in her eighties on December 17, 1663.
Mangbetu women’s clothing, Medje village, Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), 1970 - Photo by Eliot Elisofon
“The photograph depicts woman wearing traditional barkcloth ‘negbe’. The main item of women’s clothing was a rectangular barkcloth garment called ‘nogetwe’. Worn like a short skirt or sometimes like an apron, it was left open to reveal the ‘negbe’, or back apron. Women generally wore barkcloth when they were not at work and when strangers were present.” (Schildkrout E., Keim C., 1990: African Reflections, University of Washington Press)
BLACK IN ASIA
The Mani people are the original homo sapiens that travelled from Africa and settled in Thailand. They are the original negaritos who moved with other Africans like Andamanese of India, Aetas of Philippines,Semangs of Malaysia to their present residence in Thailand. They were there before the other ethnic groups came to form the Thai kingdom. Anthropological studies has revealed that the Thai Mani and Malaysian Semang were the first modern humans to enter the Malay peninsula. They remarked that "the original people of the Malay Peninsular that about 4,500 years ago the Proto-Malays moved south from the Yunnan province area of China into Southeast Asia where they met the Negritos who, for a long time, may have been the only modern humans to live in this area"
The name Mani is of Mon-Khmer origin and means “human being,” and they speak Tonga language. The Mani or “forest people” as other Thai people call them lives in the jungles of southern Thailand, in the Banthad Mountain Chain and around the Malaysian border in the provinces of Trang, Phatthalung and Satun. They are facing extinction and currently their total population is about 300. The Banthad Mountain chain became a base area for communist insurgents during the 1970s and thus a battle ground between communist guerillas and Thai government forces. Especially during the years of 1975-1977, the insurgents were battered in ground and air attacks. The Mani suffered terribly during this war with government forces frequently mistaking the smoke of Mani camp fires for insurgent activity. Those living in Trang and Phatthalung provinces had to move to the sanctuary of Thoungwan district in Satun province.
The Aetas are the aborigines of the Philippines who were called negritos by the Spaniards at the time of their reign in the Philippines because of their darker skin color. It is the tribe inhabiting the eastern parts of Luzon and called in different names: Agta, Ita, Ati, or Aeta. About 20,000 of them are spread throughout the country. Their majority can be seen in Pampanga and Zambales while others inhabit the coastal fringes of Northern Luzon, and the mountains of Negros, Samar, Panay and Leyte. As a result of their nomadic life, they live in houses built out of grass and tree branches to easily vacate upon scarcity of surrounding food.
Aeta according to anthropologists and archeologists, are descendants of the earliest settlers of the Philippines. They were predicted to migrate in the country through land bridges that connects the country to Asian mainland 30,000 years ago. It may have occurred when the Malay Peninsula was still connected with Sumatra and other Sunda Islands. Their boundless journey around the Malay Peninsula that spread as far as The Philippines resulted to their widespread existence in the country
The Semang are a Negrito ethnic group of the Malay Peninsula. Lowland Semang tribes are also known as Sakai, although this term is considered to be derogatory by the Semang people. They are the indigenous peoples of this area.They have been recorded to have lived in Malaysia since before the 200s Common Era (CE). They are ethnologically described as nomadic hunter-gatherers.
The Semang live in autonomous local bands consisting of an elder male (usually the leader of the group), his wife, their sons, and the sons’ wives and children. Their religious beliefs are complex and include numerous deities. Shaman-priests practice magic, foresee the future, and cure illness.
Semang (Jahai) ethnic group woman of Malaysia
Image 1. 17th century wall painting in the Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome showing the ambassador Antonio Emanuele Ne Vunda from the Kingdom of Kongo visiting the Pope Paul V in 1608.
Image 2. Statue of ambassador Antonio Emanuele Ne Vunda from the Kingdom of Kongo. At the Basilica of St. Mary Major (Santa Maria Maggiore) Rome. If you go to Rome, you must absolutely plan to go visit the Basilica of St. Mary Major (Santa Maria Maggiore). And ask to visit the grave and the statue of Nigrita.
400 years ago, the first ambassador sent to the Vatican from the Kingdom of Kongo died in Rome. Why was A ambassador from the kingdom of Kongo in the Vatican?
Happy Independence day to Malawi
Celebrating 50 years of Independence from the UK
(6th July 1964)
Thomas Fuller 1710 - 1790 , African “slave” and mathematician.
Thomas Fuller was an African, shipped to America as a slave in 1724. He had remarkable powers of calculation, and late in his life was discovered by antislavery campaigners who used him as a demonstration that blacks are not mentally inferior to whites.
The place of his birth appears to have been between present day Liberia and Benin. Known as Negro Tom, we know that he was described as a very black man and also we know that he lived in Virginia after being brought to the United States as a slave.Certainly late in his life he was the property of Elixabeth Coxe of Alexandria.
Thomas Fuller, known as the Virginia Calculator, was stolen from his native Africa at the age of fourteen and sold to a planter. When he was about seventy years old, two gentlemen, natives of Pennsylvania, viz., William Hartshorne and Samuel Coates, men of probity and respectable characters, having heard, in traveling through the neighborhood in which the slave lived, of his extraordinary powers in arithmetic, sent for him and had their curiosity sufficiently gratified by the answers which he gave to the following questions: First, Upon being asked how many seconds there were in a year and a half, he answered in about two minutes, 47 304 000. Second: On being asked how many seconds a man has lived who is 70 years, 17 days and 12 hours old, he answered in a minute and a half 2 210 500 800. One of the gentlemen who employed himself with his pen in making these calculations told him he was wrong, and the sum was not so great as he had said - upon which the old man hastily replied: stop, master, you forget the leap year. On adding the amount of the seconds of the leap years the amount of the whole in both their sums agreed exactly.
Another question was asked and satisfactorily answered. Before two other gentlemen he gave the amount of nine figures multiplied by nine. … In 1790 he died at the age of 80 years, having never learned to read or write, in spite of his extraordinary power of calculation.
Present day thinking is that Fuller learned to calculate in Africa before he was brought to the United States as a slave. Supporting evidence for this comes from a passage written by Thomas Clarkson in 1788 describing the purchase of African slaves: “It is astonishing with what facility the African brokers reckon up the exchange of European goods for slaves. One of these brokers has ten slaves to sell , and for each of these he demands ten different articles. He reduces them immediately by the head to bars, coppers, ounces… and immediately strikes the balance. The European, on the other hand, takes his pen, and with great deliberation, and with all the advantage of arithmetic and letters, begin to estimate also. He is so unfortunate, as to make a mistake: but he no sooner errs, than he is detected by this man of inferior capacity, whom he can neither deceive in the name or quality of his goods, nor in the balance of his account.”
Despite Fuller’s calculating abilities he was never taught to read or write and again this is evidence that he did not learn to calculate while in the United States. When someone who had witnessed his calculating abilities remarked that it was a pity he had not been educated, Fuller replied: ‘It is best I got no learning; for many learned men be great fools.’ He died on 1790 in Alexandria, Virginia, USA.
Click here for more: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/031508609090050N
"With daylight the Americans found four dead Germans on the battlefield and evidence of perhaps as many as thirty-two more involved in the fight. The Germans had probably dragged away several of their dead. The Americans also found thirty-eight bombs, rifles, bayonets, and revolvers. The Germans are said to have thereafter designated African American troops the ‘blood-thirsty black men.’ The French dubbed them ‘hell-fighters’; the 369th would henceforth be known as the ‘Harlem Hellfighters.’"
Happy Independence day to Somalia (East Africa/ Horn of Africa)
Celebrating 54 years of Independence (Union of the Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and State of Somaliland (former British Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic. Event annually commemorated on Independence Day.)
(1st July 1960)